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Natcher Conference Center, Room E1E2
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD

Workshop Organizers:
Eugene Chang, MD (University of Chicago)
Michael Fischbach, PhD (University of California San Francisco)
Marguerite Hatch, PhD (University of Florida)
Dan Littman, MD PhD (New York University)

Kristin Abraham, PhD (NIDDK, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolic Diseases)
Michael J. Grey, PhD (NIDDK, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition)
Chris Ketchum, PhD (NIDDK, Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases)
Rebekah Rasooly, PhD (NIDDK, Division of Kidney, Urologic, and Hematologic Diseases)

Goal: Advance our understanding of how host physiology and disease pathophysiology are affected by the gut microbiota; define research needs and opportunities for interrogating host-microbiota interactions and their role in modulating disease processes within NIDDK’s mission.

Format: Retreat-style format designed to (1) highlight the clinical perspective of how diseases are affected by the gut microbiota; (2) provide case studies for studying host-microbiota interactions in the context of inflammation and epithelial barrier function, nutrient metabolism and energy balance, and communication with distant organs; and (3) introduce novel frameworks for understanding the factors that regulate host-microbiota interactions and stasis. Sessions will have facilitated panel discussions to address the major scientific questions that will advance our understanding of host-microbiota interactions and how physiology and disease pathophysiology are affected by the gut microbiota.

Output: Planning group will develop a workshop summary to highlight the research needs and opportunities identified by workshop participants.

Abstract/Poster Information: The abstract submission deadline is August 22nd, 2014. The poster board dimensions are 4' (H) x 6' (W).


Day 1 – September 9, 2014
8:00 - 8:15 am Gregory Germino (Deputy Director, NIDDK)
Opening Remarks: The Gut Microbiota and the NIDDK Mission
8:15 - 8:30 am Stephen James (Director, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, NIDDK)
Understanding How Host Physiology is affected by the Gut Microbiota
Session 1: How Are Disease Processes Affected by the Gut Microbiota – A Clinical Perspective

State-of-the-art Talks – What is known about how disease onset, progression, or treatment is affected by the gut microbiota? What clinical considerations need to be taken into account when designing studies to understand the mechanisms by which disease pathophysiology is affected by the microbiota? What are the most pressing clinical aspects for research to understand how the host and diseases respond to the microbiota and microbial functions? Presentations will be 20 minutes followed by 5 min Q&A.

Chair: Eugene Chang (University of Chicago)

8:30 – 8:50 am Ramnik Xavier (Massachusetts General Hospital/Broad Institute)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
8:50 – 9:10 am Mark Atkinson (University of Florida)
Type 1 Diabetes
9:10 – 9:30 am Lee Kaplan (Massachusetts General Hospital)
Obesity and Energy Balance
9:30 – 9:50 am John Lieske (Mayo Clinic)
Primary Hyperoxaluria
9:50 – 10:10 am Gary Wu (University of Pennsylvania)
Diet and the Gut Microbiota
10:10 – 10:30 am Panel Discussion
10:30 – 11:00 am Break
Session 2: Interrogating Host-Microbial Interactions in Host Physiology and Disease Pathophysiology

Case Studies – targeted case studies illustrating recent examples and state-of-the-art approaches for interrogating host-microbial interactions in thematic areas. Presenters will integrate considerations for relevant clinical questions, host genetics, informatics advances, and assay platforms and models. The moderator will facilitate a panel discussion to address key scientific questions that will advance our understanding of how host physiology and disease pathophysiology are affected by the gut microbiota.

11:00 am – 12:00 pm

How are intestinal inflammation and epithelial barrier function modulated by the gut microbiota? (15 minutes per case study + 20 minutes for discussion)

Moderator: Dan Littman (New York University)

Case Study 1: Dan Littman (New York University)
Microbiota, innate immunity, and inflammation
Case Study 2: Wendy Garrett (Harvard School of Public Health)
Microbiota and Tregs
Case Study 3: Gunnar C. Hansson (University of Gothenburg)
The impervious nature of the inner mucus layer is influenced by the luminal bacteria and the host immune system
Case Study 4: Thad Stappenbeck (Washington University St. Louis)
Tools and technologies for studying microbe-epithelial-immune interactions
12:00 – 12:15 pm Panel Discussion
12:15 – 1:30 pm Lunch

1:30 – 2:30 pm

How are nutrient metabolism, transport, and energy balance modulated by the gut microbiota? (15 minutes per case study + 20 minutes for discussion)

Moderator: Marguerite Hatch (University of Florida)

Case Study 1: Sandrine Claus (University of Reading)
Understanding host-microbiota interplay: How can nutrimetabonomics help?
Case Study 2: Marguerite Hatch (University of Florida)
Oxalobacter interacts with intestinal mucosa and modulates transport of its carbon source
Case Study 3: John Rawls (Duke University)
Microbial regulation of host lipid metabolism
Case Study 4: Aldons J. Lusis (UCLA)
Microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary components and CVD risk
2:30 – 2:45 pm Discussion
2:45 – 4:00 pm Poster Session

4:00 – 5:15 pm

How are microbe-dependent factors and host-microbe interactions in the gut communicated to affect host physiology and disease pathophysiology at distant organ sites? (15 minutes per case study + 20 minutes for discussion)

Moderator: Ron Kahn (Joslin Diabetes Center)

Case Study 1: Ron Kahn (Joslin Diabetes Center)
Microbiota, insulin signaling, obesity and diabetes
Case Study 2: Frank Gonzalez (National Cancer Institute, NIH)
Microbiota, nuclear receptors, and metabolism
Case Study 3: Jennifer Pluznick (Johns Hopkins University)
Renal receptors for microbe-derived SCFAs and regulation of blood pressure
Case Study 4: Patrick Tso (University of Cincinnati)
Role of lymphatics in the transport of microbial-derived products
Case Study 5: Gilles Mithieux (INSERM)
Microbiota-brain communication via short-chain fatty acids and intestinal gluconeogenesis
5:15 – 5:30 pm Discussion
5:30 pm Wrap-up and Adjourn Day 1

Day 2 – September 10, 2014
8:45 – 9:00 am Recap Day 1 and Introduction to Day 2

Session 3: Novel Frameworks for Understanding and Modulating Host-Microbiota Dynamics Concept Talks – What concepts regarding host-microbiota interactions should the community consider as we think about research to understand how host physiology and disease pathophysiology are affected by the gut microbiota? Do these concepts offer a framework for interrogating host-microbial interactions in complex systems? How can they be applied to research questions for understanding how to manipulate host-microbiota interactions to modulate host physiology or disease pathophysiology?

Moderator: Michael Fischbach (University of California San Francisco)

9:00 – 9:25 am Eugene Chang (University of Chicago)
Our microbial organ and its role in regulating host metabolism
9:25 – 9:50 am David Relman (Stanford University)
Resilience and modulation of microbial communities
9:50 – 10:15 am Frederic Bushman (University of Pennsylvania)
Exploring the human virome and the role of virus-bacteria-host interactions in physiology and disease pathophysiology
10:15 – 10:40 am Charles F. Burant (University of Michigan)
Metabolomic technologies to discover mediators of host-microbiota interactions
10:40 – 11:10 am Break
11:10 – 11:35 am Michael Fischbach (University of California San Francisco)
Small molecules from the human microbiota
11:35 am – 12:00 pm Sarkis Mazmanian (California Institute of Technology)
Experimental approaches to define microbial functions and host-microbiota interactions
12:00 – 12:25 pm Alex Khoruts (University of Minnesota)
From Stool Transplants to Next-Generation Microbiota Therapeutics

Session 4: Future Directions and Opportunities for Research to Understand How Host Physiology and Disease Pathophysiology Are Affected by the Gut Microbiota

12:30 – 1:30 pm Panel Discussion – Eugene Chang, Michael Fischbach, Marguerite Hatch, Dan Littman
1:30 pm Closing Remarks and Adjourn

Meeting Location:
Natcher Conference Center
Building 45, Conference Room E1E2
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, MD

NIH Visitor Information:
The Natcher Conference Center is located on the NIH Campus in building 45. For a map, general information, and directions to and around the NIH Campus, visit: http://parking.nih.gov/visitor_access_map.htm.

NIH Security:
The NIH, like all federal government facilities, has instituted security measures to ensure the safety of NIH employees, patients, and visitors. The national threat advisory level, determined by the Department of Homeland Security (http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland), currently is yellow (elevated).

Perimeter Security: All visitor vehicles, including taxicabs, hotel and airport shuttles, delivery trucks, and vans will be inspected before being allowed on campus. Visitors will be asked to show one (1) form of identification (a government-issued photo ID: driver’s license, passport, green card, etc.) and to state the purpose of their visit. Be sure to allow at least 15-20 minutes for this vehicle inspection procedure.

Building Security:
Due to the checking of IDs at the perimeter, employees and visitors will not be required to show their ID again to gain access to the majority of buildings on the NIH Campus during the normal business day.
Employees and visitors should continue to wear their identification prominently at all times while on campus.
Guards will remain at certain buildings to address specific program requirements, such as sensitive research and safety concerns. At building entrances where guards are posted:

  • Employees must show a DHHS-issued photo ID (for example, your NIH-issued ID badge).
  • Visitors may be required to log-in, wear a visitor’s pass, and be escorted by an employee through the building.
  • Visitors may be required to pass through a metal detector and have bags, backpacks, or purses inspected or x-rayed as they enter buildings.
  • Security staff will confiscate any suspicious or potentially dangerous materials. U.S. code prohibits bringing any dangerous weapons onto federal property, including anything with a blade longer than 2½ inches. Meeting participants may want to leave extra bags or personal materials at their hotel to minimize the time needed for inspection.

Weekday Pedestrian Campus Access: